Tuesday, November 12, 2013

Thanksgiving Tribute

(Original title: The Grand Ladies of Blogging)

I guess I woke up, too early, in a philosophical frame of mind this morning. Did you wonder where I've been, or whether I'd ever be back? Sometimes our favorite bloggers just seem to disappear, so this morning I'd like to give tribute to a few, selected from many, who can be counted on to shift my mental gears toward the positive, and from whom I still long for fresh postings.

My blogroll has 20 names on it, but only those who've posted recently appear, and ten of those names haven't posted in quite some time. The three I want to remember today are all, apparently, older than I am, and reliable sources of perspective. I'd say "wisdom," but sometimes, when it comes to the young, the essence of wisdom is NOT to share it. Let them find out in their own good time, as we all must.

"Granny Smith," or Phyllisophy, sits at the bottom of the visible list, having posted seven months ago. I haven't been one of her regular followers, but I always enjoyed checking in with her and soaking up a little of her unique blend of life lessons, reminiscences, and verbal and artistic creativity. Phyllis was a regular at Sunday Scribblings, and being regular at creativity is something my writer-self has yet to manage. Her poetry and essays are still there to be enjoyed—and that, to me, is one of the intriguing benefits of blogging. We hope all is well with Phyllis and her world, but whether or not she writes again, her words and pictures remain behind to inspire all of us with life's joys.

Another Granny. Granny J of Walking Prescott, kept me in occasional touch with Arizona and its wildflowers. Her disappearance is less mysterious, as her daughter posted a stirring memorial on her passing three years ago. (There's an indication of how far out of touch with blogging and my early community I've become.) Granny J (for Julie) was a woman I can not just admire but relate to, one who walked the deserts near her home looking for and photographing all sorts of natural (and sometimes unnatural) history with an appreciative eye for the eclectic. Thanks, and farewell, Granny J—I hope your new trails are as entertaining as your familiar outback.

One of my earliest blog buddies, Endment, hasn't posted since Christmas 2011. She'd been worried about water, and had posted about the anniversary of the Gettysburg address two years before everyone else. She'd become mom to a puppy just three years before her posts dwindled. But mostly she posted wonderful photos and stories about her backwoods yard in upstate New York, reminding me of places I'd grown up and keeping me in touch with the eastern deciduous biome. She too has gone quiet.

These "grand ladies" taught me about blogging and became friends of a distant but readily accessible sort. Kindred spirits, in fact. As Phyllis once said "blog friends aren't virtual, they are real!" So amazing, this technology that, even in one's 80s, one can master and use to stay in touch with others. These ladies used blogging to share good times as well as challenges, moments prosaic and uplifting, and became an inspiration to others in the process. And, incredibly, whether tis fate or choice keeping them away, their work remains "out there" to inspire and inform. I aspire to their example, which retreats ahead of me as I reach for it. But I'm thankful they and many others have been part of my life, and (yes!) I still believe in blogging, even when I'm not here! It's a medium that transcends distance, age, and even time.

If I may mention one more, still highly reliable, source of constant inspiration, Cate at Beyond the Fields We Know has been blogging pretty much daily (!) since November 2005. Is that a record?? Look for her bobbing to the top of my blogroll; she never misses the mark and always amazes, whether in stunning photographs, thought-provoking text or poetry, or just reminders of the pleasures of staying in touch with one's immediate territory. Her diligent recording of each month's Full Moon, to name one example, is a testament to persistence and Earth wisdom. Thanks, Cate!

To these ladies, and to the many other bloggers whose acquaintance I've enjoyed and learned from, a heartfelt Thank You!!

Thursday, August 15, 2013

Prairie Compass

Friend Rick wrote to brag about his compass plant, Silphium terebinthium. "It topped out at about 9.5 feet this year. This is the most flowers it's ever had and it increases dramatically every year."

Wednesday, May 01, 2013

If It's Tuesday, It Must Be Snowing

You'd hardly know it to look out the window, but somewhere in the world plants are blooming, spring is springing... and we are, after a brief hiatus, locked again in white today. (Okay, I know it's Wednesday this time.) My main preoccupation (sorry, boss) is keeping the hummingbird feeders thawed, an activity that is, to all appearances, much appreciated. It was pathetic, this a.m., to see a hummer sitting bleakly on the clothesline next to a frozen-over feeder. They're happier if I can keep the little holes from icing up.

Posting the view out there would be redundant (see last week), but if you want to know what it looks like, drop in on seven years ago this week. 80-degree Sunday (check), sunburn (check), several inches of snow (check), lilacs in bloom (oops). Or, for something a little fresher, try April 27, 2009. It's not like this is unusual. What may be is having this weather on a recurring basis, Tuesday or Wednesday, week after week this past month.

So for a "taste" of something more cheery, I visited April's edition of Berry-Go-Round, the plant blog carnival that, this time, treats us (that may not be the right word) to smelly, ugly denizens of the plant world. I sat this one out, as I really couldn't think of a local plant that was smelly, ugly enough— due to lack of imagination, I'm sure. (In fact, this morning I can think of two easy candidates. Oh well.) I was amazed at the diversity of posts Hort Log was able to attract to this eclectic collection!

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Earth Day Aftermath

At 5:30 last night:

And this morning, 7 a.m.

Thinking of going somewhere?

Coffee on the patio, perhaps?

'Nuf said!

Monday, March 25, 2013

Something with leaves

We drove out yesterday to look at pretty snow and rocks, and I had an encounter with a plant that was at least green! (An accomplishment at this time of this particular spring.) Other than our ubiquitous conifers, predominantly Ponderosa Pine and Rocky Mountain Juniper, the aspect out there is bleak and brown for plant life, and white for everything else.

Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) is the rare exception. Four of these large evergreen shrubs grow near the Trading Post at Red Rocks Park, far from their normal range in the Intermountain West. These artificially introduced interlopers are not unwelcome, at least to me. One reason is that they don't seem to be invasive: four aging trees, no longer thriving, and one stump suggest long presence here, yet there is no sign of offspring. Research into that must await a more appropriate season. For now, we'll just enjoy the touch of life it adds to the winter landscape and its aesthetic charm against the red rocks of the Fountain Formation.

Despite the cyanogenic glucoside Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany apparently contains,a it's enormously popular as a browse for wild ungulates. So is our local species, variously "true," "alderleaf," or just plain Mountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus), which would look like this in a different season, but today looks more like a "Cerco-carcass." (Photo of Alderleaf Mountain-mahogany leaves and seeds -- July 2005, Nikon D70, by Cory Maylett, via Wikipedia.)

My first Rocky Mountain ecology teacher used to call this plant "deer ice cream," and our shrubs are generally "managed" within browsing height by the frequent deer pruning they receive. They rarely reach much more than a meter in height.

Curlleaf, in contrast, grows more as a tree and exceeds the reach of its would-be predators, whose munching efforts among its lower branches apparently help stimulate its upward growth.b In deer feeding studies back in the 1940s and 50s, curlleaf was deemed "most desirable" of 17 species of browse offered to captive deer. A hybrid between these two species was ranked second, though data were limited.c

The overlapping ranges shown above create the opportunity for hybridization, with the two occurring together at lower elevations in Utah and other intermountain areas. That factor also contributes to complex intraspecific taxonomic issues, so we're fortunate that here in eastern Colorado, the situation seems to be a little more straightforward.

Lots more to learn about Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany at this site.

Coincidentally, last week before the snows I encountered another individual of the curlleaf species about four miles (7 km) south of the Trading Post. I was surprised to spot it, but again, it was in an area of our foothills long popular with original Americans as well as with later inhabitants. This tree, however, had an unusually intimate relationship with a large boulder next to it. It had grown into and around this huge chunk of red sandstone, or, it appeared, the rock had grown into it.

I have to confess I'm rather baffled by this one. The boulder is on the downhill side of the tree, and what you see in these photos are the trunk and branches, not roots, of a mature tree. I'm looking forward to suggestions from readers on how this might have happened.

aDhurrin, the cyanogenic glucoside of Cercocarpus ledifolius (pdf), Nahrstedt and Limmer, 1982, Phytochemistry Volume 21, Issue 11, Pages 2738–2740

bResponse of Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany to Pruning Treatments in Northern Utah (pdf), Austin and Urness, July 1980, J Range Mngt 33(4), 275-277

cFeeding deer on browse species during winter, Smith, Arthur D., 1950, J. Range Mngt 3(2):130-132

Sunday, March 24, 2013

'Tis the Season



"We heard the lilacs needed pruning!"

Introductions? That's Heir Apparent (aka Son-of-Funny-Face) on the left, Funny Face herself on the right, and assorted daughters and grandchildren in between. Prongs, who is, I think, about three years old now, is out of frame on the right; he has been hanging out with the family lately. They were munching the lilacs (left) until I showed up to distract all ears.

Thursday, March 07, 2013

A Body in Motion

While compiling the Berry-Go-Round collection last week, I got to spend some time with an "old friend," which is to say, Laurent, the original guru of BGR, one of the first bloggers I got to know when I started nigh onto 7 years ago (this month). Laurent's been somewhat scarce these last couple of years, life gets busy, as we know! But now he's becoming a prolific and entertaining blogger again, over at Seeds Aside. You never know what he's going to come up with!

So there I was, hanging out on his blog, checking out posts, and I discovered he's also highly educational. I learned two new tricks, and I'm going to subject you to one of them this very morning:

Whoa! I can't move quite that fast. Let's slow Squirrel Nutkin down a notch.

And he can keep that up all day. Now I know where all the sunflower seeds are going!

So, yes, we have fox squirrels at last. They found us, recognized a well laid table when they saw it, and it looks like they're here for the duration.

Saturday, March 02, 2013

Bringing you Berries!

Here we are: February's issue of the Berry-Go-Round plant blogging carnival has reached your mailbox. What is a carnival? Hollis will clarify the concept at In the Company of Plants and Rocks, with a post designed to encourage more plant blogging, and not coincidentally, more carnival submissions! We did well this month, thanks to reminders via email and twitter (#berrygoround if you'd like to join us).

Jessica at Moss Plants and More has recently moved from one side of the U.S. to the other, and now brings us user-friendly photo field guides to help identify mosses of Sequoia National Park. She also shares her up-to-the-minute research on the paradox of cryptic species. I prefer my species a little more obvious (aka "easy"), but "morphologically austere," that sounds intriguing!

Hollis also presents a couple of newsworthy items, with The Plant Press reporting that leaf identification software is trending, and Helen McGranahan reminding us that lichens have a lot to tell us about air quality.

A Taste of Spring

The Phytophactor declares the official first day of spring on February 13th. (Oh, eeps!) Can you guess which of the plants in his neighborhood is his harbinger? He also offers a winter edition of Friday Fabulous Flower I can't resist adding to our collection this month. And, being the Phactor, many more posts of botanical interest.

Spring is not unique to TPP's area, as JSK of Anybody Seen My focus? knows, but in February you have to really look for it. On February 14th, she sneaks up on her target, with fascinating results!

Arts and Crafts

Susannah, On the Other Hand, decides that joining the National Phenology Network will help with her PhD project, as she enlightens us on the phenology of pollen. In another innovation, she also starts a life list of gymnosperms. This should catch on! Why let birders have all the fun?

Speaking of fun, Kim Gilbert of The Modern Forest tells us what it takes to have adventures in the field and survive them! If indoor sports suit you better, check out herbarium fun and games, another entry from the Phytophactor, who strives to interest his students in "reality taxonomy" via specimens.

Laurent, founding parent of this botanical carnival, is back! Now finding himself with more time for blogging at Seeds Aside, he submitted four entertaining posts. His gift for wordplay is well exercised, with an exploration of "chori", which is, of course, the plural of chorus, but in plant form. In other words, everything you wanted to know about how plants get around. More words bring us randomly generated poetry with, he writes, "small bits of botany and Academia."

Are you more visual than verbal? Before BGR, maybe even before we knew Laurent, he introduced It's been beesy (yes, more wordplay), featuring a technique for making plants a little more lively than usual. Now he's moving into a new art form, with his charming Peanut Leechy Gallery (more samples at this post)! I am going to have to try this, though I sense it won't be nearly as elegant in dusty brown Colorado.

Remember how you've been wondering "what is wuyuanzao"? Luigi answers all (except how to pronounce it) at the Agricultural Biodiversity weblog. In another post submitted by Jeremy, Luigi explains all about agroforestry and conservation and why we should care about this approach to the rainforest.

Jeremy introduces Another Blasted Weblog and assures us that Mentuccia is not pennyroyal. He reminds us it's good to know exactly what's cooking, especially when herbs are labeled ambiguously.

Sally delves into, but does not solve, the mysterious Hackberry here at Foothills Fancies.

That wraps up this month's edition. Hope you found some good reading, and if so—don't forget to share your appreciation with a comment or two at each stop! Next month's Berry-Go-Round will be hosted at In the Company of Plants and Rocks. Thanks, everyone!!

Thursday, February 28, 2013

Mysterious Hackberry and a Hackberry Mystery

Lioness and Guardian stopped by the other day to pick up a large night-blooming Cereus in need of a good home. Somehow the conversation turned to Hackberry; I forget just how that happened. They had asked me to ID a couple of dry winter twigs they found (Brickellia californica and Eriogonum effusum, don,t ask me how I knew--Gestalt taxonomy?). And I needed to write a plant post for BGR, so...

What is mysterious about Hackberry? Lots of things, it turns out. I knew it as a native shade tree, but the story is complex, as so many are once you delve into them a bit. The genus Celtis is a tangled web whose strands cross the planet. Wikipedia isn't sure how many species there are, 60 to 70 perhaps, but one or more of them is found in almost every continent and archipelago. Who knew?

Mysterious identity

Hackberry once belonged to the Ulmaceae, and in its "shade tree" form makes a good substitute for American Elm. Now, however, I hear it's been placed with the Cannabaceae, with whose famous members it probably shouldn't be confused. It is a tall tree, graceful and elegant. Sometimes. And much in need of taxonomic examination.

Here's what one set of data suggests for its U.S. occurrence:

We have, perhaps, two species in Colorado. Once I would have readily said these are Celtis occidentalis L. and Celtis reticulata Torr., but the experts don't agree even on that simple point. They unite on the species C. occidentalis, the Eastern or Common Hackberry, named "western" by Linnaeus apparently as distinct from C. orientalis, an Asian species but disagree on whether it's here. They also waffle on C. reticulata, formerly C. douglasii, which some place as a subspecies of Celtis laevigata, a species confined by others to the southeastern U.S.

The Chemist is certain. He believes C. reticulata is a gnarly small native tree, and C. occidentalis is the tall, nonnative shade tree one. The latter is far more likely to be spotted, often along drainages. They are so different, he says, that they must be two distinct species; I'm inclined to agree. Take a look at the Colorado distribution (adapted from the Plants database; green being reticulata, pink C occi, and blue for both):

(Contrariwise, NatureServe says C occi is in 40 states--but not Colorado.)

"My" hackberry, the solitary one in our yard, is an indeterminate case. I'm leaning toward C occi. The house was 12 years old when we moved in, and this tree presumably no older. Now, thirty years later, it's a bit taller but not much changed. It still looks young, without witches brooms, and without a trace of gnarliness. Was it planted from nursery stock, by former occupants? Or did it germinate from seed brought in by birds? I can only guess. It doesn't grow (much), probably because it's surviving solely on natural precipitation, but it doesn't die either. A testament to the drought hardiness and resilience of this plant.

Mysterious witches brooms

Guardian's question was about "those things" that grow on Hackberry. "Galls" I said before I got my brain in gear, and it's true that Hackberry is beset by gall-forming insects, from bud and petiole galls to the distinct nipple gall often seen on the leaves.

"Witches brooms" is the correct answer, at least this time of year. What causes these odd growths that become the easiest and most reliable way to recognize Hackberry in winter? Turns out, scientists aren't exactly sure. Two candidates—an eriophyid mite and a fungus—vie for the honor, but the result is a characteristic of the plant that is practically diagnostic! They disfigure its winter aspect, but are barely visible in summer after the trees leaf out.

Mysterious Hackberry Hill

In our part of Colorado, Hackberry is historical legend. Place names abound, as you'd expect; this ubiquitous genus lends its name to towns (in AZ, LA, and TX), street names, and Hills (in Las Vegas, NV, as well as TX, CT, and IN). Our Hackberry Hill is in Arvada, at about 76th and Wadsworth, has its own Wikipedia page, and is made even more famous by the nationally known elementary school (see Southern Poverty Law Center for a nice story; good for them!). But it no longer has a famous Hackberry tree.

The tree that gave its name to Hackberry Hill was, most likely, a common Hackberry, C occi, singled out for its exotic occurrence on this high spot. 'Tis said that natives and pioneers used the tree as a distant landmark, and it is believed to have sprouted from the medicine pouch of an Indian chief killed in battle and buried at this spot long ago. It was huge! But it was in the way of progress, and therefore had to be cut down. Locals rebelled, and the giant tree was to be transplanted. A trench was dug around it in preparation, but vandals intervened one night in 1937 and settled the contentious issue before the tree was salvaged.

If a plant post comes, can February's Berry-Go-Round be far behind? Look for it later today!

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

This should help!

A co-worker and I were debating this year's coming drought the other day, especially relative to its effects on grass and therefore large domestic herbivores in Colorado. This came in the wake of dire forecasts in local media and across the West. With little forage, livestock feeding started early last fall, hay prices doubled, and groceries will too, after a lag.

Thus the snow that fell energetically all day Sunday, delivering 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) across the Front Range, was greeted with universal enthusiasm. Guess what it's doing out there today? After a wimpy start, today's storm (above) is now gaining its own momentum. Six or eight more of these, and we should be in good shape!

My colleague is right that drought bodes ill in many ways, from another bad wildfire season to water rationing in municipalities, but the native grasses of the Great Plains of Colorado have seen such episodes many times before. Give them a little encouragement—and this storm certainly will—and they'll be back! That, however, is a topic for another day.

Changing the subject somewhat, I'm happy to report that we have a great selection of submissions for this month's Berry-Go-Round. Thanks to all of you diligent plant bloggers, we'll have some good reading for you here later this week!

Monday, February 25, 2013

Berry Good Deadline...

Good morning, all. Today is the deadline for submissions to this month's Berry-Go-Round, our carnival for plant bloggers everywhere! If you haven't heard of it, check the link for past issues and instructions on submitting. Or tweet us a link to your post using hashtag #berrygoround. There's even a handy submission form!

Generations of BGR hosts have given me leeway on those submittal deadlines, so I will tell you that, as a practical matter, the true deadline is more like 6 a.m. Mountain Standard Time (US) tomorrow, February 26th. Need more time? Talk to me and we'll work something out. I aim to have this month's edition posted by the end of the week-- and already have almost a dozen entries!

Maybe extending a tad will give me time for a post of my own! But the 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) of white stuff that arrived yesterday means I can't even see plants out there (except trees, of course)... but I know that somewhere in the world there is green, and even flowers!

Back soon!!

Can't wait? Enjoy this video of potato late blight set to music, just tweeted by Luigi! Beautiful, but sad too... Thanks, Luigi!

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Berry-Go-Round comes back around

That's right! This month's Berry-Go-Round will be hosted here at Foothills Fancies, which itself is experiencing a bit of release from dormancy. (Posts have been scarce here due to a long intense project that is, finally, nearing completion.)

If you can't wait, or are in need of inspiration, check out: Please bring on your plant-related posts by February 25th for our round-up, appearing here at the end of this short month. I look forward to seeing tons of posts by BGR regulars as well as new plant bloggers!

Need help submitting? It's all right here. BGR overlord Susannah has also made it even easier: all it takes to get our attention is use of our new Twitter hashtag! #berrygoround.

Sunday, January 27, 2013

Cordials as a Botanical Adventure

Update: This post belatedly submitted to Mixology Monday, the Witches' Garden edition, to be hosted at Cardiff Cocktails after May 20.

As with so many adventures, this one started quite by accident. I was browsing happily, and something caught my eye on someone's website—it might have been the Phytophactor’s—off we go then! The link led me to the Drunken Botanist, surely an intriguing name for a website. My curiosity was captured at once by a story about chartreuse, a word heretofore known to me only as a color.

A discovery like this makes you wonder where you’ve been all your life—how could such a thing be novel after so many decades of botanical exploration? I needed to find out what this tasted like, and as the post was not merely a description but an invitation to experimentation, my course was set. I rounded up some likely suspects—herbs as well as friends—and we assembled the fixings by a “bring your own…” process. The first batch last June contained some 32 botanical ingredients (excluding the vodka) and was deemed wildly successful, although insufficient; a second batch had to follow before the month was out.

Chartreuse, as you may know, is an ancient herbal liqueur first formulated by monks in France as a medicinal tonic incorporating the benefits of some 130 herbs. Everything we needed to know was found at Amy Stewart’s post on the Drunken Botanist. Me, I'm still trying to imagine 130 herbs!

By the end of our adventure, I was somewhat closer to being able to envision such abundance.

We took Amy at her word: "If it grows in the French countryside and it’s not likely to kill you, it’s probably in there." But caution is of the essence—PLEASE don't attempt this, or any other botanical creation, unless you have the required expertise, or can consult someone who does!

Our second attempt focused more on the botany of imbibing. We assembled the bot group for a foraging expedition, price of admission being one or more forbs as contributions and perhaps a bottle of vodka for the steeping. Indigo Flaxweed, who got me started several years ago on these infusions with chokecherry (but a prickly pear sample is here), has an outrageous herb garden, buckets of which she brought to the mix. The Lioness invited us all to her place to forage in the wilds. The Chemist brought grape leaves (Vitis vinifera) and sweet flag (Acorus calamus) from his garden; Bee Lady brought a few nutmegs and helped with plant ID; and Strawberry Tree brought a bundle of dill (Anethum graveolens).

Unfortunately, the droughty summer limited foraging success, though we were able to add small amounts of beebalm (Monarda fistulosa), chiming bells (Mertensia ), plantain (Plantago major, a weed), raspberry leaves (Rubus idaeus), salsify root (Tragopogon sp.), wild peppermint (Mentha piperita), and some sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) just to get our species count up. Always helps if you can use weeds or exotics; we were extremely cautious about taking more than a leaf or two from natives in this bleak season. Most of the largess shown here is home-grown, but you may be able to spot a few foraged varieties.

I brought balm (Melissa officinalis), the one thing I can grow, and exotic spices and fruits, including cinnamon, star anise, bay leaves, cloves, cardamom, and some lemons and limes. And, of course, vodka.

Thanks to Indigo Flaxweed's incredible garden, we ultimately assembled about 62 ingredients! Again this count excludes the vodka, of which Indigo and the Lioness are here adding copious quantities. It made for a phenomenal brew.

Next day the Lioness and I met to decant—this isn't one you need to leave for weeks of slow steeping, but is ready overnight. Taste before decanting to ensure flavors have developed. Our 62 ingredients quickly turned into a tasty potion.

After decanting, the infusion is blended with a simple sugar syrup (1 part sugar, 1 part water or sweeter if you like) to attain palatability. Start with 1 cup syrup to 3 cups brew, and adjust to taste. Although both batches were quite green at first, the final result became a lovely golden color within a day or two.
So what did it taste like?

To this day, I can't report whether or not it tastes like a proper Chartreuse, or even any of the French clones. I've yet to invest in a "real" bottle!

We were more than happy with its complex earthy flavors; perhaps our palates were piqued by the thrill of creation. The first batch, though simpler in content, seemed just as delightful as the second and was equally appreciated.

In sharing it with others, however, we find people react with either enthusiasm or disdain. As with cilantro—perhaps because of the cilantro—our homebrew triggered a love/hate response. Happily, it has more than enough admirers to ensure a ready market for any we were willing to share. Honored Elder swears it makes a perfect bedtime cocktail.

Strawberry and the Chemist, however, aren't big fans of the alcohol version. For them, we infused some of this incredible mix of botanicals in vinegar as well. That one steeped for a couple weeks, but the final result was also more than adequate, I think, though I can only vouch for the cordial!

The tasting (above) offered opportunity for further experiment and adjustment. What if we sweetened with honey or agave, instead of simple syrup? Pinch of this, pinch of that... It turned out that a final secret ingredient—contributed by the Queen's Taster—put this concoction over the top, at least to our taste buds. We already knew a little chile pequin gave it a zing, but the real winner proved to be ... habanero!

You would think all those bottles would last a while! And they did, through year's end. The saga went on... but that's another story!

The Plants
In some cases, my best guess... Warning: Possible obsolete taxonomy, but this should get you there.

Allspice, Pimenta dioica
Alpine strawberry, Fragaria
Amaranth, Amaranthus retroflexus, aka redroot pigweed
Bacopa or water hyssop, Bacopa monnieri
Basil, Ocimum basilicum
Bay leaves, Laurus nobilis
Beebalm, bergamot, Monarda fistulosa
Borage, Borago officinalis
Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum
Catmint, Nepeta x faassenii
Chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla
Chiming bells, Mertensia lanceolata
Chives and flowers, Allium schoenoprasum
Cilantro, Coriandrum sativum
Cinnamon sticks, Cinnamomum verum or C. cassia
Clementine/orange peel, Citrus reticulata
Cloves, Syzgium aromaticum
Comfrey, Symphytum officinale
Common mallow, Malva neglecta
Costmary, Tanacetum balsamita
Cress, Lepidium sativum
Dill, Antheum graveolens
Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare
Feverfew, Tanacetum parthenium
French tarragon, Artemisia dracunculus
Garden sage, Salvia officinalis
Grape leaves, Vitis vinifera
Horseradish, Cochlearia armoracia
Juniper berry, Juniperus communis
Lamb's ears, Stachys lanata
Lemon balm, Melissa officinalis
Lemon thyme, Thymus x citriodora
Lemon zest, Citrus × limon
Limes, Citrus x latifolia
Lovage, Levisticum officinale
Lungwort, Pulmonaria officinalis
Marigold, Calendula officinalis
Mexican tarragon, Tagetes lucida
Milk thistle flowers, Silybum marianum
Mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris
Nutmeg, Myristica fragrans
Orange mint, Mentha citrata
Oregano, Origanum vulgare
Parsley, Petroselinum crispum
Peppermint, Mentha piperita
Pineapple sage, Salvia elegans
Plantain, Plantago major
Purslane, Portulaca oleracea
Raspberry leaves, Rubus idaeus
Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis
Salsify root, Tragopogon sp.
Scarlet globemallow, Sphaeralcea coccinea
Sorrel, Rumex acetosa or R. acetosella
Southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum
Spearmint, Mentha spicata
Star anise, Illicium verum
Strawberry leaves, wild, Fragaria
Sweet flag, Acorus calamus
Thai cinnamon basil, Ocimum basilicum
Wormwood, Artemisia absinthium
Yellow sweetclover, Melilotus officinalis